The project aims to produce a report which aggregates the best available data on the set of ecosystem services factors that enables a more coherent measurement of ocean services, along with guidance on how to use them as part of the development, maintenance and use of ocean accounts.


The scope of work is cross-national/global scale.


Measuring and valuing ocean services is central to the ocean accounts framework. Technical Guidance on Ocean Accounting and in consistent with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA) suggests the measurement of ocean services to begin with the accounting of services in physical terms. Then, the service flows in monetary terms can be estimated by multiplying the quantities of services by associated prices using appropriate methods.

However, accounting for ocean services in physical terms–particularly non-consumptive services that are based on the extent of an ecosystem type–will require mapping of those ecosystem types and the ecosystem services factors to estimate the quantities of services provided per unit. Currently, there are no comprehensive global databases of such factors readily available. In addition, using these factors in ocean accounting will require an understanding of how to apply them since each factor was produced based on specific assumptions about the ecosystem type, the extent, the condition of the extent, the service being measured, the method being applied and the conditions under which the measurement was made.

The emerging interest to develop ocean accounts in several countries, including Indonesia, is relevant to support realisation of national sustainable ocean economy–where environmental protection goes hand in hand with economic production and prosperity. This report leads to a compilation of Ecosystem Services Factors to fill the above-mentioned knowledge gap and support national ocean accounts implementation.


With the focus on ocean services of selected ecosystem types (mangroves, coral reefs, and seagrasses), four steps are taken to develop the report on Ecosystem Services Factors:

  • Researching and reviewing existing ecosystem services models, case studies and databases that produce, use or record ecosystem services factors, as well as past research on valuation of ecological services across multiple ecosystem types.
  • Compiling ecosystem services factors–with the emphasis on factors for estimating physical quantities of ecosystem services–and documenting the measurement methods and assumptions under which the factors were made.
  • Engagement with key stakeholders/experts to consult data gaps and ensure the relevance of work completed.
  • Providing a practical step-by-step process guide that supports selection and use of appropriate ecosystem services factors for the compilation of a supply and use table for ocean services.


This project is supported by UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, in collaboration with Global Ocean Accounts Partnership, and will be developed through a series of consultations with stakeholders and experts.


Arief Wijaya

Rizky Januar Haryanto