The work aims to explore the dynamics and challenges on the management of corresponding coastal ecosystems (mangroves, coral reef and seagrass). The analyses are also expected to inform number of policy and institutional aspects in Indonesia, such as mangrove moratorium, coastal zone management plan, and eco-tourism toward an improved coastal management.


Indonesia, with sub-national focus on East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) province.


Coastal and marine areas constitute vast portion of Indonesia natural resources. Indonesia is a country with the largest mangrove extent and one of the largest coral reef areas in the world (Giri, et al., 2010; CMEA Decree 4/2017; Spalding, Ravilious and Green, 2001; Statista, 2011). Such abundance of resources contains major benefits. Not only becoming major source for economic livelihoods (in form of fisheries, logistics, and tourism, among others); healthy coastal ecosystems also provide various ecosystem services such as shoreline protection, flood protection and carbon storage (blue carbon). Indonesia’s coastal ecosystems, both mangroves and seagrass included, are estimated to store approximately 3.53 billion metric tonnes of carbon.

The objective of sustainably optimizing the coastal ecosystem benefit justifies the need to conserve Indonesia coastal ecosystems. Since, anthropogenic pressure remains on the coastal ecosystems due to unsustainable tourism, land conversion and marine pollution, among others. The conservation efforts are also implied within the national policy measures, including: the target for rehabilitating 1.8 million hectares of mangroves by 2045; establishment of 195 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to protect coastal and marine assets; and continuous attempt on updating availability and quality of the spatial data of coastal ecosystems, which are central for monitoring and decision-making process. Additionally, there is growing recognition on the importance of blue carbon within the Indonesia’s effort for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Given the existing works and targets, the NCA work provides evidence based on underlying spatial and non-spatial data to support policymakers, CSOs, private sectors, and other stakeholders on decision-making process and concerted efforts toward sustainable coastal management in Indonesia.


The work activities largely consist of the following:

  1. Analysing status and trends of coastal ecosystems in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT). This also includes spatially-explicit analysis and modeling to inform NTT Coastal Zone Management Plans (Rencana Zonasi Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil/RZWP3K) and its effectiveness in NTT.
  2. Describing extent and condition of coastal ecosystems in Indonesia, including mangroves, seagrass and coral reefs. This includes comprehensive assessment on the availability, accessibility and gaps, and quality characteristics of the coastal information and data in supporting the process.
  3. Producing policy briefs on ecotourism and mangrove moratorium as plausible mechanisms toward an improved coastal zone management.


This project is supported by The World Bank and developed through series of consultation with experts and stakeholders including LIPI, Indonesia’s Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Investment, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, and Ministry of Environment and Forestry.